Timelines of History Vol 1: The Big Bang to 1BC

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The British army captured the hills surrounding Boston from colonial forces at a disproportionate cost in casualties. The Congress drafted the Olive Branch Petition , expressing the desire of the Thirteen Colonies to remain British subjects and calling on George III to grant the colonies trade rights equal to those of Britain proper, or relieve them of taxation. A meeting of the Patriot legislature of Virginia opened in Richmond which would appoint a committee of safety to govern the colony between sessions. The Culpeper Minutemen and the 1st and 2nd Virginia Regiments were organized.

Battle of Gloucester Colonial militia captured some twenty British sailors sent to seize a schooner run aground in the harbor at Gloucester, Massachusetts. A hurricane made landfall in North Carolina which would kill some two hundred people in North Carolina and Virginia. The 1st and 2nd North Carolina Regiments were authorized. Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec: Patriot forces captured the fort overlooking the South Carolinian capital Charleston. Governor Lord William Campbell dissolved the provincial assembly and fled. Siege of Fort St.

A Patriot expedition sent to capture Montreal was intercepted. Its leader, Ethan Allen , was taken prisoner. Gage departed Massachusetts for Great Britain. The 2nd Pennsylvania Regiment was raised. The Congress authorized the establishment of a Continental Navy. The British governor John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore of Virginia issued Dunmore's Proclamation , declaring martial law in Virginia and promising freedom to any slave of a colonial revolutionary to join the British Armed Forces.

The Congress established the Continental Marines. Battle of Kemp's Landing: Noble train of artillery: Colonel Henry Knox of the Continental Army led an expedition out of Fort Ticonderoga to transport the artillery captured there to Boston. Siege of Savage's Old Fields: Williamson's militia was surrounded by a larger loyalist force. The Patriot and loyalist militia exchanged prisoners and abandoned their positions. Battle of Great Bridge: An attempt by the Dunmore to cross the Elizabeth River and destroy the Patriot encampment at modern Great Bridge, Virginia was decisively repelled. The 1st Delaware Regiment, now the th Signal Battalion , was raised.

The 3rd , 4th , 5th and 6th Pennsylvania Regiments were raised. The 5th Connecticut Regiment was disbanded. The 4th Connecticut Regiment was disbanded. Battle of Great Cane Brake: The 3rd , 4th , 5th , 6th , 10th and 15th Virginia Regiments were raised. Battle of Quebec A Continental Army force suffered high casualties in a failed attack on Quebec City. Brigadier general Richard Montgomery was killed and Arnold was wounded.

New Hampshire ratified the first state constitution. Prisoners began to be taken in Wallabout Bay. Thomas Paine published Common Sense. The Battle of Nassau began. Congress enacted the Lee Resolution declaring independence from the British Empire. Congress approved the written United States Declaration of Independence. The Battle of Long Island took place. The Staten Island Peace Conference took place. The Landing at Kip's Bay took place. The Battle of Harlem Heights took place.

The Great Fire of New York began. Nathan Hale was captured and executed for espionage. The Battle of Valcour Island took place. The Battle of White Plains took place. The Battle of Fort Washington took place. The Battle of Fort Lee took place. The Battle of Iron Works Hill began. The Battle of Trenton took place. The Battle of Princeton took place. The Battle of Bound Brook took place. The Continental Army made camp at the Middlebrook encampment.

The Battle of Short Hills took place. The Continental Army left the Middlebrook encampment. Fort Ticonderoga was abandoned by the Continental Army due to advancing British troops placing cannon on Mount Defiance. The British retook Fort Ticonderoga. The Battle of Hubbardton took place. Delegates in Vermont established the Vermont Republic and adopted the Constitution of Vermont , which abolished slavery.

The Battle of Oriskany took place. The Battle of Bennington took place. The Battle of Brandywine took place. The first Battle of Saratoga took place. The Battle of Germantown took place. The second battle concluded with the surrender of the British army under General John Burgoyne. The Battle of Red Bank took place. The Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. The Battle of White Marsh began. The Battle of Matson's Ford took place. The Continental Army entered its winter quarters at Valley Forge.

The Treaty of Alliance was signed with France. The Battle of Barren Hill took place. The Continental Army left its winter quarters at Valley Forge. The Battle of Monmouth took place. The Continental Army entered winter quarters at the Middlebrook encampment. The Battle of Stony Point took place.

The Battle of Paulus Hook took place. The Continental Army entered winter quarters at Morristown. A stockade known as Fort Nashborough was founded on the banks of the Cumberland River. New York ceded its western claims, including territory west of Lake Ontario , to the Congress. Bombardment of Fort Charlotte: The Continental Army left Morristown.

Fort Moultrie fell to the British. The British lost two hundred and fifty-five men while capturing a large American garrison. The Battle of Connecticut Farms took place. The Battle of Kings Mountain took place. The Articles of Confederation were ratified. The Battle of Guilford Court House took place. The British surrendered at Yorktown. The Bank of North America was chartered. The British government officially, yet informally, recognized American independence. The Treaty of Paris ended the war.

The British withdraw from ports in New York and the Carolinas. Congress refused Franklin admission to the Union. The Treaty of Hopewell was signed. Shays' Rebellion took place. The Northwest Ordinance of was passed. A Constitutional convention took place in Philadelphia.

Delaware , Pennsylvania and New Jersey ratified the Constitution. North Carolina reconquered and dissolved the State of Franklin. United States presidential election, took place. The United States Constitution came into effect. First inauguration of George Washington: Congress passed the Judiciary Act of and the Hamilton tariff. The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty was signed. The United States Bill of Rights was ratified. The First Bank of the United States was chartered. The independent Vermont Republic was admitted to the Union as Vermont , becoming the 14th state. Kentucky County, Virginia became the fifteenth state of Kentucky.

Washington was reelected President. John Adams was chosen as Vice President. A yellow fever outbreak occurred in Philadelphia. The Fugitive Slave Law of was passed. The Whiskey Rebellion took place. The Nickajack Expedition brings a close to the Cherokee—American wars. United States Senate election in New York, The Naturalization Act of was signed into law, extending the residence requirement for persons seeking naturalization and reserving the right of naturalization to white people.

The Eleventh Amendment , which bars the federal government from hearing suits brought against a state by a citizen of another state or of a foreign country, was ratified. The Supreme Court held in a decision in United States v. Hamilton that a defendant jailed for a capital offense can be released on bail. The Supreme Court held in a decision in Penhallow v.

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Doane's Administrators that the district courts have the same authority in prize cases that the Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture held under the Articles of Confederation. Lawrence that it cannot issue a writ of mandamus compelling a district court judge to proceed in a case when that judge feels he has insufficient evidence to do so. The Western Confederacy signed the Treaty of Greenville , ceding much territory in modern Ohio to the United States in exchange for an annual subsidy and ending the war.

Peters that it can compel a district court to cease proceedings in a case where it has no jurisdiction. Spain and the United States signed Pinckney's Treaty , fixing the boundary between the United States and the Spanish colonies and guaranteeing freedom of navigation on the Mississippi River. Adams was elected President. Thomas Jefferson was elected Vice President. The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were issued. Action of 1 January The Haitian squadron captured two American ships at great cost in casualties. The Virginia General Assembly adopted the Report of , arguing that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the Constitution and for the compact theory that the United States is a free association of states.

Adams signed into law an act establishing the Library of Congress and moving the national capital from Philadelphia to Washington, D. United States House of Representatives elections, The Slave Trade Act of , which forbade residents and citizens of the United States from investing in or serving aboard a ship engaged in the business of transporting slaves into the United States, was signed into law.

Battle of Puerto Plata Harbor: American forces captured a French ship and Spanish fort in the harbor of what is now Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. President Adams issued a general amnesty to all participants in the rebellion. John Marshall becomes Secretary of State. The Indiana Territory was partitioned from the Northwest Territory.

Connecticut ceded the Connecticut Western Reserve to the federal government , which in turn annexed it to the Northwest Territory. The Supreme Court held in a decision in Mossman v. Higginson that the parties to a suit must be so described as to show on the record that the court has jurisdiction. In a decision in Bas v. Tingy , the Supreme Court held that France was an enemy of the United States under a salvage law because, although Congress had not declared war, it had taken actions concomitant with a state of war.

British forces took possession of the island and seized local merchant ships, including American ships. France and the United States signed the Convention of , ending the war. The Convention terminated the Treaty of Alliance and guaranteed that each nation would grant the other most favoured nation status.

United States presidential election, President Adams delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress in which he celebrated the capital's move to its permanent home in Washington, D. United States Senate elections, and The first regular election to the Senate for the 7th Congress began, in Kentucky.

The Electoral College cast an equal number of votes for Democratic-Republicans Jefferson and Aaron Burr , sending them to a runoff election in the House. Thomas Jefferson was elected President by the House of Representatives. Aaron Burr became Vice President. Adams appointed John Marshall Chief Justice. The Supreme Court issued a decision in Marbury v. Madison which overturned a portion of Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of Ohio , formerly the Northwest Territory , became the 17th state.

Alexander Hamilton was fatally wounded. Lewis and Clark began their journey west. The Embargo Act of was passed. James Madison was elected president; Clinton was reelected as Vice President. The Non-Intercourse Act was passed. The Supreme Court issued a decision in Fletcher v. Peck that overturned a state law. The charter of the First Bank of the United States expired. Daniel Webster was elected to the United States Congress. British troops burned Washington, D. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war. Battle of New Orleans: The battle took place before notification of the Treaty of Ghent made it to the frontier.

James Monroe was elected President; Daniel D.

Tompkins was elected Vice President. The Second Bank of the United States was chartered. The Rush—Bagot Treaty was signed.

Timeline of the history of the region of Palestine

Harvard Law School was founded. The Cumberland Road opened. The Jackson Purchase in Kentucky was obtained. The decision in McCulloch v. Maryland prohibited state laws from infringing upon federal Constitutional authority. The decision in Dartmouth College v. Woodward protected the principle of honoring contracts and charters. The Missouri Compromise was signed into law, providing for the admission of the District of Maine into the Union as a free state and of the southeastern portion of the Missouri Territory into the Union as the slave state of Missouri.

The Supreme Court held in a decision in Handly's Lessee v. Anthony that where a river is said to be the boundary between two states, the boundary is determined by the course of the river at its lowest point. The state of Maine was admitted to the Union. Massachusetts's 14th congressional district was abolished.

The Land Act of was signed into law, ending the provision of credit to individual buyers of federal land and simultaneously reducing the minimum price and size of tracts that could be sold. The Tenure of Office Act was passed by the Congress , limiting the term in office of civil servants to four years. Missouri gubernatorial election, The Choctaw and the United States concluded the Treaty of Doak's Stand , under which the former ceded roughly half their territory to Mississippi and agreed to be moved west into modern Arkansas.

Democratic-Republican Isham Talbot was elected to fill the seat left vacant by the Logan's resignation. Voting began for election to the presidency. Federalist senator James Burrill Jr. The decision in Gibbons v. Ogden affirmed federal over state authority in interstate commerce. An election was held with inconclusive results. John Quincy Adams was elected president by the House , winning thirteen of twenty-four states. The United States and several unauthorized representatives of the Muscogee signed the Treaty of Indian Springs , under which the latter ceded their territory east of the Mississippi River to Georgia and Alabama.

Capture of the Anne: The Crimes Act of , which extended the authority of the federal government to prosecute a number of crimes and which included the first Assimilative Crimes Act , extending the laws of the surrounding states into federal enclaves , was signed into law. Inauguration of John Quincy Adams: John Quincy Adams was inaugurated president in the House chamber of the Capitol.

New Hampshire's at-large congressional district special election, Titus Brown was unanimously elected to the House from New Hampshire in a special election caused by representative-elect James Miller's declining to serve. South Carolina's 1st congressional district special election, The American Unitarian Association was established. Kentucky's 3rd congressional district special election, Pennsylvania's 16th congressional district special election, Senator Andrew Jackson of Tennessee resigned his seat.

Beauchamp murdered attorney general Solomon P. Sharp of Kentucky at his home in Frankfort, Kentucky over an affair Sharp had with Beauchamp's wife before their marriage. Louis , under which the latter sold the territory around Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The United States and Central America signed the United States—Central America Treaty , under which each granted the other most favoured nation status with respect to trade. The Committee on Agriculture, now the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry , a standing committee of the Senate , was established.

The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was published. Construction began on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. A Christian revival took place. The Oregon Trail came into use by settlers migrating to the Pacific Northwest. The Indian Removal Act was passed. Publication of The Liberator began. The Petticoat Affair took place. The Ordinance of Nullification was passed by South Carolina. The Department of Indian Affairs was established.

Jackson vetoed the charter renewal of the Second Bank of the United States. Calhoun resigned the Vice Presidency. The Force Bill , expanding Presidential powers, was passed. Jackson's second inauguration was held. Slavery debates took place at Lane Theological Seminary. Alexis De Tocqueville 's Democracy in America was published.

A war begins in Florida with Seminole resistance to relocation. Battle of the Alamo took place. The Battle of San Jacinto took place. The Creek War of took place. The original " Gag Rule ", a bar on discussion of antislavery petitions passed by the House , was imposed. The United States recognized the Republic of Texas.

The Caroline Affair took place. Oberlin College began enrolling female students. A decision in Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge reversed a decision in Dartmouth College v. Woodward and affirmed that property rights can be overridden by public need. The United States presidential election, was held. William Henry Harrison became President. John Quincy Adams argued the case United States v. The Amistad before the Supreme Court. The Amistad was decided. President Harrison died after only a month in office. The Webster—Ashburton Treaty was signed. A civil war took place in Rhode Island.

Congress passed the Presidential Election Day Act , establishing the Tuesday after the first Monday in November as the day on which electors of the Electoral College are elected in all states. Israel Dammon was tried in Atkinson, Maine for disturbing the peace after leading a congregation of Millerites in worship. The Florida Territory was admitted to the union as the state of Florida. Inauguration of James K.


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Polk was sworn in as president in Washington, D. Great Fire of Pittsburgh: A fire in Pittsburgh burned roughly a third of the city and killed two. A gathering of Triennial Convention Baptists met in Augusta, Georgia to establish a new church, the Southern Baptist Convention , following disputes over slavery. Residents of the east side of what is now Milwaukee destroyed two bridges leading to the west side over the Milwaukee and Menomonee Rivers. Great New York City Fire of A fire in New York City killed thirty, including four firefighters.

The United States Naval Academy was founded. The last elections to the House for the 29th Congress , in Mississippi , were held. The Democratic Party retained a significant majority. The nativist Know Nothing party won six seats. Polk signed into law a bill admitting the Republic of Texas into the union as the state of Texas.

The Mexican—American War began. Seneca Falls Convention for women rights. They wrote the Declaration of Sentiments which they added women to the Declaration of Independence. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the war. The California Gold Rush began. Thomas Pratt was elected to the Senate from Maryland , replacing fellow Whig who had until then held it by appointment to fill a vacancy. The Supreme Court held in a decision in Sheldon v. Sill that the Congress , which has the power under the Constitution to institute lower courts of the judiciary , also has the power to limit their jurisdiction.

Calhoun died of tuberculosis in Washington, D. Californian volunteers launched a punitive expedition against the Quechan. The United States and the United Kingdom signed the Clayton—Bulwer Treaty , under which each promised to maintain the neutrality of a proposed canal through Nicaragua and not to occupy or colonize any territory in Central America.

Ohio Women's Convention at Salem in A women's rights meeting convened at Salem, Ohio. The Convention drafted a petition to the upcoming Ohio state constitutional convention asking that women be granted the franchise as well as civil and political rights equal to those of men. An American punitive expedition killed as many as one hundred Pomo civilians on an island in Clear Lake.

A convention of delegates from nine slave states met in Nashville, Tennessee. Five Cayuse were hanged for the murder of fourteen missionaries near modern Walla Walla, Washington. The Convention resolved to propose the extension of the Missouri Compromise line west to the Pacific Ocean. Inauguration of Millard Fillmore: Senator Thomas Corwin of Ohio resigned his seat following his appointment as Secretary of the Treasury.

Fellow Whig Thomas Ewing was appointed to fill his seat. Whig senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts resigned his seat following his appointment as Secretary of State. The first regular elections to the House for the 32nd Congress were held, in Iowa and Missouri. A riot broke out between settlers in New Helvetia and supporters of John Sutter 's claim to the land in which five people were killed.

Whig congressman Charles Magill Conrad of Louisiana's 2nd congressional district resigned following his appointment as Secretary of War. Jenny Lind tour of America, — Swedish singer Jenny Lind arrived in New York. California was admitted to the union as a free state. The Utah and New Mexico Territories were organized. Whether slavery was to be permitted or forbidden in each territory was left to its residents. See Compromise of California elected Democrats John C. Gwin to the Senate. The Fugitive Slave Act of was passed, eliminating the last civil and political rights of escaped slaves and imposing serious penalties for harboring or failing to arrest fugitives.

The slave trade was abolished in Washington, D. The Donation Land Claim Act was signed into law, granting free plots of land to white and half-blooded Native American settlers of the Oregon Territory. Congress passed the Swamp Land Act of , providing a mechanism for the transfer of swamp land from the federal government to the states for drainage and improvement. Virginia Constitutional Convention of A state constitutional convention convened in Virginia to address the disenfranchisement of the state's west.

New York state election, Elections were held to statewide office in New York. Whig candidate Washington Hunt was narrowly elected governor. A specially elected convention in Georgia adopted the Georgia Platform accepting the Compromise of but warning against infringement of the rights of states in the South. The federal government assumed Texas 's debt. In exchange, Texas officially renounced its territorial claims in the New Mexico Territory. Uncle Tom's Cabin was published. Commodore Matthew Perry opened Japan. The Gadsden Purchase was finalized. The Convention of Kanagawa was signed.

William Walker led an expedition. The sacking of Lawrence took place. The massacre, led by John Brown , took place. Preston Brooks beat Charles Sumner with his walking stick in the Senate chamber. A decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford declared blacks are not citizens of the United States and, therefore, do not have the right to file lawsuits. The first transatlantic cable was laid. Lincoln—Douglas debates were held. The United States becomes a party to the Treaty of Tientsin.

John Brown led a raid on Harper's Ferry. The Crittenden Compromise was reached. Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States. South Carolina seceded from the Union. Ten more states seceded from the Union and established the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis was elected President of the Confederacy. The war began at Fort Sumter. The First Battle of Bull Run took place. Battle of Hampton Roads: A naval battle between the Monitor and Merrimack took place. The Homestead Act was passed. The Morrill Land-Grant Acts were passed.

Lee was placed in command of the Army of Northern Virginia. The Second Battle of Bull Run took place. The Battle of Antietam took place. The Dakota War of was fought. The Battle of Gettysburg took place. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation , freeing slaves in those states that had seceded. The Siege of Vicksburg took place. The New York City draft riots took place. Pro-Union counties that had seceded from Virginia became the 35th state, West Virginia. Grant was put in command of all Union forces. The Wade—Davis Bill was passed. The Sand Creek massacre took place.

Sherman's March to the Sea took place. Lee was named commander-in-chief of all Confederate forces. Richmond, Virginia , the Confederate capital, was captured by a corps of black Union troops. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House. Lincoln was assassinated; Andrew Johnson became President. The war ended with the surrender of the last elements of the Confederacy. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed, permanently outlawing slavery. The Freedmen's Bureau was established. The Civil Rights Act of was passed.

The Tenure of Office Act was enacted. The Alaska Purchase , referred to as "Seward's Folly" by critics: The Alaska territory was purchased from Russia. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson: Johnson was impeached by the House , but acquitted by the Senate. Women's suffrage leaders Susan B. Murder of John R. Chinese national Ah Chow fatally shot miner John R. Virginia was readmitted to representation in Congress. It sent one Republican and one Democrat to the Senate and three Republicans and five Democrats, some of whom were seated over the following five days, to the House.

The Fifteenth Amendment , which prohibits federal and state governments from denying the right to vote to any citizen on the basis of " race , color or previous condition of servitude," was ratified. Democrat George Woodward Greene was removed from the House after Republican Charles Van Wyck , who succeeded him, challenged his credentials as a duly elected member. Mississippi was readmitted to representation in Congress. The Fourth Military District was dissolved.


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Mississippi sent four Republicans to the House and two, including the first black congressman, to the Senate. Republican congressman John T. Texas was readmitted to representation in Congress. It sent two Republicans to the Senate and three Republicans and one Democrat to the House , some of whom were seated the following day. New York special judicial election, The Democratic Party won four seats to the Republicans' two, in addition to the chief justiceship , in a special election to the New York Court of Appeals.

The Enforcement Act of , which empowered the Marshals Service and the federal courts to enforce the Fifteenth Amendment , was signed into law. The first elections to the House for the 42nd Congress were held, in Oregon. A bill establishing the Department of Justice was signed into law. The law brought all United States Attorneys under the authority of the Attorney General , granted the new department exclusive authority to prosecute federal crimes, and created the office of the Solicitor General , responsible for representing the federal government before the Supreme Court.

The Currency Act of was signed into law, maintaining the supply of Demand Notes and replacing 45 million dollars in temporary loan certificates with banknotes. Congress passed the Funding Act of , authorizing the refinancing of the national debt through the issuance of long-term debt instruments. The Naturalization Act of , which created a system of controls for the naturalization process and extended the process to persons of African origin and descent, was signed into law. Georgia was readmitted to representation in Congress. Its representatives were held ineligible and not seated.

Washburn observed and named Old Faithful. Conservative Richard Thomas Walker Duke was seated following a special election to fill the vacancy left by Ridgway's death. Elections to statewide office in New York resulted in a Democratic sweep. The Great Chicago Fire occurred.

Yellowstone National Park was created. Republican congressman William J. Purman of Florida resigned. A group of German American cowboys attempted to break into the jail in Mason County, Texas to take its prisoners, cattle rustlers, to be lynched. The Civil Rights Act of was signed into law, guaranteeing blacks equal treatment in public accommodations and public transportation and making them equally eligible for jury duty. The Page Act of , which banned the entry into the United States of prostitutes and unfree labour from Asia , came into force.

Democrat Effingham Lawrence was seated in the House seat representing Louisiana's 1st congressional district following his successful challenge of the election of Republican J. March Southeast tornado outbreak: A two-day tornado outbreak began in which some one hundred people would be killed in the Southeast. The Supreme Court held in a decision in Minor v. Happersett that the Fourteenth Amendment does not grant women the right to vote. Aristides won the first running of the Kentucky Derby in Louisville, Kentucky. Key was appointed to Johnson's vacant Senate seat. California gubernatorial election, The last regular elections to the House for the 44th Congress were held, in California.

The Democrats gained 90 seats, transforming their caucus from a small minority to a dominant majority. Plaisted was seated in the House following a special election in Maine's 4th congressional district to fill Hersey's vacancy. A reverend allied with settlers on the Maxwell Land Grant was found murdered in the canyon of the Cimarron River.

Pennsylvania gubernatorial election, Pennsylvania governor John F. Minnesota gubernatorial election, Crapo was seated in the House following a special election in Massachusetts's 1st congressional district to fill Buffington's vacancy. A forces of Texas Rangers crossed into Tamaulipas in pursuit of stolen cattle and came into armed conflict with Mexican militia in which at least eighty were killed.

The Texas Rangers took a Mexican customs officer hostage. The cattle were returned to the United States. Norton was seated in the House following a special election in New York's 33rd congressional district to fill the vacancy left by the death of representative-elect Augustus F. Allen , also a Republican. Democrat Haywood Yancey Riddle was seated in the House following a special election in Tennessee's 4th congressional district to fill Fite's vacancy.

The National League of baseball was founded. The Centennial Exposition , in Philadelphia , was held. A decision in Munn v. Illinois established the public regulation of utilities. Battle of Little Bighorn took place. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. The Electoral Commission awarded Rutherford B.

The Reconstruction era of the United States ended. The Bland—Allison Act was passed. The first Morgan silver dollar was minted. The University of Southern California was founded. The population of the United States passed 50 million.

Timeline of the history of the region of Palestine - Wikipedia

Gunfight at the O. A gunfight takes place in Tombstone , Arizona Territory. James Garfield was inaugurated President of the United States. Arthur was inaugurated President of the United States. Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross. The Tuskegee Institute was founded. Billy the Kid was shot and killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett. The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed. A decision in the Civil Rights Cases legalizes the doctrine of racial segregation.

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Grover Cleveland was inaugurated as President. The Washington monument was completed. The Haymarket riot took place. Looking Backward , by Edward Bellamy , was published. The National Geographic Society was founded. Benjamin Harrison became President. North Dakota , South Dakota became the 39th and 40th states. Washington became the 42nd state. Johnstown flood of A dam failure and fire in Pennsylvania.

Jane Addams founded Hull House. The Land Run of began. The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was passed. The McKinley tariff was passed. Yosemite National Park was created. The Wounded Knee massacre took place. The Baltimore crisis took place. Cleveland was inaugurated President for a second term. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was repealed.

Coxey's Army marched on Washington, D. The Pullman strike took place. The Wilson—Gorman Tariff Act , including an income tax, was passed. Democratic congressman Thomas H. Paynter of Kentucky's 9th congressional district resigned following his appointment to the Kentucky Court of Appeals. Burrows of Michigan's 3rd congressional district was elected to fill the Senate seat representing Michigan fellow Republican John Patton Jr.

Republican Lee Mantle was elected to the Senate from Montana. The Supreme Court reached a decision in Sparf v. It established some standards for acceptable confessions and held that federal judges are not required to instruct juries of their right of jury nullification. In a decision in United States v. Clark was elected to the Senate from New York. The Maguire Act of , which ended imprisonment for sailor deserters in certain cases, came into force. Wilson was elected to the Senate from Washington. Jorden was seated in the House after a special election to the seat representing Pennsylvania's 15th congressional district to fill the vacancy left by the death of fellow Republican Myron Benjamin Wright.

Cuban War of Independence: Uprisings against Spanish rule began across Cuba. In a decision in Coffin v. United States , the Supreme Court held that criminal defendants are presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt , and that judges presiding over juries must advise them of that fact. Democratic congressman James C. Black of Georgia's 10th congressional district resigned. A mob of white union dockworkers killed six blacks in New Orleans following an announcement that many of them would be laid off and replaced with cheaper black labor.

The Supreme Court held in a decision in Pollock v. Nicaragua Crisis of Halma won a running of the Kentucky Derby in Louisville, Kentucky. British forces were forced to withdraw from Corinto, Nicaragua under the terms of the Clayton—Bulwer Treaty. Republican congressman William Cogswell of Massachusetts's 6th congressional district died. Land Run of A run took place on former Kickapoo land in the Oklahoma Territory.

In a decision in In re Debs , the Supreme Court held that a federal injunction ordering participants in the Pullman Strike back to work was authorized under the Commerce Clause. The Supreme Court reached a decision in Hilton v. Guyot in which it described the application of the principle of comity to the enforcement of foreign judgments in the United States. Venezuelan crisis of Leading black intellectual Booker T.

Washington delivered a speech in Atlanta advocating for the Atlanta Compromise , which would preserve segregation and white political supremacy but allow blacks due process and basic education. Black was reelected to his own House seat. Horace Rawlins won the inaugural U. A College Textbook and a Study Guide. Retrieved June 18, Sanders refers to the general consensus, Vermes a common 'early' date, Finegan defends comprehensively the date according to early Christian traditions.

History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. Retrieved May 11, The view from Istanbul: Lebanon and the Druze Emirate in the Ottoman chancery documents, — The Jews in Palestine in the Eighteenth Century: History of Eretz Israel from Prehistory up to , Vol. It was the time when the Jewish settlements of Galilee were destroyed by the Druze: Tiberias was completely desolate and only a few of former Safed residents had returned In Safed, too, the [Sabbatai] movement gathered strength during the autumn of The reports about the utter destruction, in [sic], of the Jewish settlement there seem greatly exaggerated, and the conclusions based on them are false.

Rosanes' account of the destruction of the Safed community is based on a misunderstanding of his sources; the community declined in numbers but continued to exist A very lively account of the Jewish community is given by French trader d'Arvieux who visited Safed in The historical earthquakes of Syria: Annals of Geophysics, 48, — Number 1; Tel Aviv, 5 Iyar , Archived from the original on November 20, Retrieved April 16, Fewer Israeli civilians died in Palestinian attacks in than in any year since the Palestinian uprising began in Palestinian militants killed 23 Israelis and foreign visitors in , down from a high of in during the height of the uprising.

Most significant, successful suicide bombings in Israel nearly came to a halt. Last year, only two Palestinian suicide bombers managed to sneak into Israel for attacks that killed 11 people and wounded 30 others. Israel has gone nearly nine months without a suicide bombing inside its borders, the longest period without such an attack since [ Noa Meir, a spokeswoman for the Israel Defense Forces.