Dear Tia Juana (Free and Cheap Materials for Teaching ESL Book 1)
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Photo by Jsanchezes, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. He enjoyed mixed fortunes in his quest. Starting in Goa and Portuguese India more broadly, he subsequently traveled further east, evangelizing in Malacca, the Maluku Islands, and Japan. Returning to Malacca and Goa in late and early , he then set out on a new mission to China. Photo by Gaius Cornelius, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. The documents all concern various kinds of legal proceedings, with the result that this free database now offers online access to some , records concerning summons, lawsuits, and the like, but also, and importantly for historians, many other important aspects of life in Navarre between and Because the documents contain all the relevant information concerning why and how lawsuits were issued, they offer invaluable information about how people went about their daily lives during this time, what customs prevailed, and what were the principal causes of such disputes; in sum, they offer a unique window onto early modern and modern life in Navarre.
Of particular interest to the Basque-American community is all the information available pertaining to family history, given that one of the main reasons for such lawsuits being issued concerned inheritance questions. As a result, this is a mine of information for anyone interested in family history but broader issues are also involved such as communal disputes, crime, and even witchcraft.
A pandero-jotzaile tambourine player and txistulariak pipe players lead a traditional Basque wedding procession. Marriage was a key social and economic event because it signified that those joined in union would become the etxekoandre and etxekojaun, the mistress and master of a baserri or farmstead; in sum, the sole proprietors of the central socioeconomic unit of Basque culture and life. Whoever was marrying into the property, man or woman, would bring with them certain possessions: Hence the all important wedding procession, typically headed by an ox-drawn cart, which showed off these worldly goods.
Again not untypically, the couple were blood relations, on two levels, within the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity. Accordingly, they had been obliged to seek church permission prior to getting married, which they did from the Bishop of Baiona in Lapurdi. That same year, on May 17, there was another marriage between two residents of Ondarrola, Jean Etxeberri and Catalina Caminondo, which also took place in the parish church of Arnegi. Txalaparta, , p.
This is a matter of transporting to the house where the future couple will live the furniture and the trousseau brought by the newly arrived spouse, male or female. The father leads the first wagon harnessed with oxen in full livery: The artfully arranged trousseau is covered with a counterpane with a cushion on top. On a chair tied behind the wagon are placed clogs decorated with copper nails in the shape of an ace of hearts or of spades; there are also a broom, a pick-axe, and a rake. Previously, in the case of the bride, the distaff, the spindles, and the reels were prominently displayed, and these symbolic objects were often finely carved and decorated.
On other wagons, more or less numerous depending on the wealth of the bridegroom, pride of place was given to the mattresses and the furnishings, all displayed to their greatest advantage. The seamstress and the joiner, the authors of all these treasures, formed part of the procession; it was they who, on arrival, arranged the bedroom of the newlyweds. Often in the same parade, but sometimes separately, the godfather led a magnificent plump sheep with ribbons and gilded horns to be eaten at the wedding feast—escorted by a whole crowd of ewes with tinkling bells, the tzintzarrada.
A good meal is of course given to all these visitors, and it can be said that the wedding really begins on that day. Two days later, everyone gathers at the square once more: And, to the sound of a merry zinkha or irrintzina , everyone jostles and bustles to the town hall, and then, with more ceremony, to the church. A few superstitions, now vanished, used to be in evidence at the nuptial blessing. This was supposed to have the power to sanctify the clothes worn on that particular day; so the bride would apparently cover herself in several dresses, one on top of the other—later, these would be very useful for her, affording her long-term shelter from spells.
In several villages, there is a touching custom: Husband or wife—whichever of the couple was until then a stranger to the estate—is thus, so to speak, solemnly associated on that day with the cult of the dead of the new family. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. From these humble beginnings he would go on to a have a successful career as an opera singer, gaining international renown as the greatest Italianate tenor of his generation and one of the most famous tenors of all time in the history of opera. Leaving school at 13 he was immediately put to work as a shepherd, one of the principal means of earning a living in his natal Pyrenean surroundings.
It was in the capital city of Navarre that he first came across professional musicians, and he was even fired from his job for leaving the store one day to follow a band parading in the street outside. His rise to fame was in many ways meteoric. He finished his studies in Madrid in and was awarded a grant by the Provincial Council of Navarre to continue studying his craft in Milan.
Shortly after beginning his studies in Milan, he made his operatic debut in and thrilled critics with both his voice and commanding stage presence. As a result of his performances throughout Italy in the s he was soon in demand in the great opera capitals of Europe, Paris and London, traveling widely across the continent as a whole as well as to Brazil and Argentina, although his home stage remained the legendary La Scala opera house in Milan.
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Gayarre on his debut performance at La Scala, Milan, in At what would turn out to be his final performance, at the Royal Theater in Madrid on December 8, , he broke down mid-performance, retiring from the stage claiming he could sing no more. Just a few weeks later, on January 2, , he died in Madrid. His body was thereafter taken back to his beloved Erronkari, to be buried near the very house in which he was born. Interestingly, too, from his global travels he would write home to his family in Basque, in the Eastern Navarrese dialect, and his letters are preserved to this day as an eloquent testimony to this beautiful, but lost, dialect.
The following somewhat rakish in places letter, written in , is one such example:.
Barcelona 19 Diciembre Ene tia Juana maitia. Eugenia sin da [etorri da] arro[nt] ongui. Quemen gaude anisco ongui guciac eta ori [berori] nola dago? Nain din [nahi dun] sin [rin, jin, etorri] [xin]cona [honat, hona] ichasoaren ecustra? Anisco andia da, tia Juana. Nai badu nic dud anisco deiru orentaco vidagearen pagateco quemengo ostatiaren pagateco. Gorainzi guzientaco eta piyco bat nescachi pollit erroncarico guziat.
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If you like, I have enough money to pay for your journey and pay for your hotel here. For more information check out the foundation in his name here. Image by Unai Fdz.
Theklan, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. On December 2, , the first in a series of four Treaties of Baiona the others signed in , , and respectively fixed the current border between the French Republic and the Kingdom of Spain, and thus between Iparralde and Hegoalde, the North and South Basque Country.
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To that time the border was by no means a settled issue, with disagreements on the parts of both countries particularly over where to demarcate boundaries in Catalonia in the east and the Basque Country in the west. Photo by jmerelo, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. The Treaty of the Pyrenees represented a first attempt to address the matter formally. A treaty ending the long Franco-Spanish War of , this agreement was signed on traditional neutral ground: Photo by Ignacio Gavira, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
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As regards the border, by the treaty France gained most of Northern Catalonia in the east. She's published a series of ESL teaching materials and self-teaching materials: She's published three books of historical fiction for middle elementary students learning about California history: Until she retired in July, , she was the owner of The Write Spot, a nonprofit used bookstore in Coalinga, California. Profits from the sale of her books supported ESL, citizenship, and GED classes for adults working to complete their education.
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