Functional Condensation Polymers
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Linear polymers are created using monomers with two reactive end groups and monomers with more than two end groups give three-dimensional polymers which are crosslinked. Dehydration synthesis often involves joining monomers with an -OH hydroxyl group and a freely ionized -H on either end such as a hydrogen from the -NH 2 in nylon or proteins. Normally, two or more different monomers are used in the reaction.
The bonds between the hydroxyl group, the hydrogen atom and their respective atoms break forming water from the hydroxyl and hydrogen, and the polymer. Polyester is created through ester linkages between monomers, which involve the functional groups carboxyl and hydroxyl an organic acid and an alcohol monomer. Nylon is another common condensation polymer. It can be manufactured by reacting di-amines with carboxyl derivatives. In this example the derivative is a di-carboxylic acid , but di-acyl chlorides are also used. Another approach used is the reaction of di-functional monomers, with one amine and one carboxylic acid group on the same molecule:.
The carboxylic acids and amines link to form peptide bonds , also known as amide groups. Proteins are condensation polymers made from amino acid monomers.
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British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Condensation polymerisation is a process whereby many small monomer molecules join together to form one large polymer, with water, or some other small molecule formed at the same time.
The monomers have more than one functional group. Polyesters are condensation polymers formed by the reaction between a diacid with a diol.
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Both monomers must have two functional groups. In the exam, you may be asked to identify the monomers from a condensation polymer. A rearrangement reaction leads to the formation of the urethane linkage.
Technically polyurethane is not a condensation polymer since no molecules are lost, but the functional group does rearrange. A hydrogen moves from the alcohol to the nitrogen, while the oxygen links to the carbon. The urethane functional groups are similar to the amide group. In some applications the urethane polymer chains are further reacted to make cross links. Think of a chain link fence to get the idea of cross linking chains together.
Poly urethane an be drawn into fibers used in upholstery.
Soft polyurethane foam can be used as padding in furniture and mattresses, while rigid foam is used as insulation in buildings. Link to Polyurethane - with Chime molecule - Macrogalleria at U.
Condensation type Polymers Demonstrations with Polymers. See the Nylon demonstration below.